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Annotated Works Cited
Approximately 6 pages

Unpublished Work | National Register Documents | Other Documents | World Wide Web Documents


Adams, Judith. The American Amusement Park Industry; A History of Technology and Thrills. Boston, MA: Twayne, 1991

  • An excellent overview of the development of the amusement park. Focused on the economics of the amusement park rather than the sociological ramifications of the park.

Amory, Cleveland. The Last Resorts. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1952

  • Describes the top seven resort destinations of the late 19th and early 20th century. Provides a historical development as well as a detailed social discussion.

Anderson, Norman D. Ferris Wheels; An Illustrated History. Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 1992

  • Quite an in depth look at the history and development of one of the most important parts of the amusement park midway, the Ferris Wheel. Includes a discussion on the Ferris Wheel at Rocky Point.

Bolotin, Norman & Christine Laing. The Chicago World's Fair of 1893; The World's Colombian Exposition. Washington, D.C.: The Preservation Press, 1992

  • Overall this is a good summary of the Exposition. Filled with photographs that provide a working knowledge of how the Exposition worked. Provides a good bibliography.

Brown, Dona. Inventing New England; Regional Tourism in the Nineteenth Century. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1995

  • A close examination of the tourism industry in New England. No major discussion of specific Rhode Island areas, but provides a solid background of understanding about the sociological reasoning behind recreation.

Charleton, James. Recreation in the United States; National Historic Landmark Theme Study. Washington, D.C.: National Park Service, 1986

  • A review of major landmarks in recreational history. This document provided the general outline of types included in this discussion.

Denison, Frederic. Narragansett Sea and Shore. Providence, RI: J.A. & R.A. Reid, 1879

  • Located in the Providence Public Library's Rhode Island Collection, this book is filled with advertisements for seaside resorts and recreational activities. An interesting insight into the world at 1879 and the recreational activities present for those people.

Dulles, Foster Rhea. America Learns to Play; A History of Popular Recreation 1607-1940. Gloucester, MA: Peter Smith, 1963

  • One of the most important books on the development of recreation and the society that surrounds it. A fantastic book that is well written and provides a strong base on which the rest of the discussion into social recreation can begin. This book is worth reading if more work is to be done in the area of social recreation.

Goldsack, Bob. A Century of Fun; A Pictorial History of New England Amusement Parks. Nashua, NH; Midway Museum Publications, 1993

  • This work provides a look at the photographs and postcards from amusement parks in New England. The text is sparse, but the photos produce a strong story on their own. Goldsack covers 31 parks and provides a list of many more. A good book for anyone doing research on amusement parks in New England.

Kelly, John R. Leisure. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1982

  • A textbook for leisure studies, this book provides many of the definitions of recreation, play and leisure. Designed for those studying leisure studies, it is well worth reading the first several chapters to get a background in the history and terminology of leisure.

Krech, Shepard III. Passionate Hobby. Washington, D.C.: The University of Washington Press, 1994

  • Although this book provides only insight into one man, Rudolf Haffenreffer, it has a section on how the Mount Hope Lands were used. Included in that discussion is a portion on the former amusement park on the land.

Providence Parks Department. The Jewel of Providence; An Illustrated History of Roger Williams Park 1871-1961. Providence, RI: City of Providence, 1987

  • A fantastic book on Roger Williams Park. In depth look at the history and the people who made the park. Provides great pictures and discussion of the park.

Polakowski, Kenneth J. Zoo Design: The Reality of Wild Illusions. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan, 1987

  • Only a short section was reviewed for this study, because the book is designed as a textbook for those studying zoo design or maintenance. Provides a short but succinct history of zoos.

Rhode Island Historical Society. What a Difference a Bay Makes. Providence, RI. RIHS, 1993

  • What a Difference... provides a great look at Narragansett Bay on the whole. One section, on summer recreation, is of most importance. Several of the articles are worth exploring for their discussions on the history and the sociology of amusement parks and beaches in Rhode Island.

RI Division of Planning, RI Department of Administration, & RI Department of Environmental Management. Ocean State Outdoors: Rhode Island's Comprehensive Outdoor Recreation Plan. Providence, RI: RIDA, June 1992

RI Office of State Planning & RI Department of Environmental Management. Plan for Recreation, Conservation, and Open Space. Providence, RI: RIOSP, January 1981

  • These two documents are plans for the future of recreation in Rhode Island. Both provide a way of looking at where recreation might be going and what can be done to preserve its history or conserve its environments.

Rush, Barbera. The Narragansett Pier; Towers and Casino at the Turn of the Century. Wakefield, RI: Wakefield Publishing, 1983

  • A short book filled with pictures and a chronology of the development and occupation of the Casino. Provides a short synopsis for the fire of the first casino and building of the second casino. Filled with useful pictures.

Rybczynski, Witold. Waiting for the Weekend. New York: Viking, 1991

  • A must read for anyone interested in leisure or recreation. Rybczynski provides a great review of the history and development of the weekend and the time that people set aside for fun and leisure. Well written, Rybczynski is constantly a pleasure to read.

Sirkis, Nancy. Newport: Pleasures and Palaces. New York: Viking, 1963

  • This book is an excellent source for photographs and small social discussions. There is no real text on the development or specific structures, but does provide some small introductory material.

Society for American Baseball Research. 14th Annual Convention Proceedings. Providence, RI: SABR, 1984

  • Information from the convention were gathered from the Rhode Island Historical Society Library's vertical file. Several articles and discussions were from specific workshops and lectures.

Statewide Survey Reports

Rhode Island Historic Preservation and Heritage Commission (previously Rhode Island Historical Preservation Commission). Providence, RI: RIHPHC (RIHPC), Various

  • The statewide surveys are an invaluable resource for anyone doing research in Rhode Island. These provide the framework for any research. Specific books were used for this research, following are a list of all books used. Each are followed by the year they were published.
  • Westerly, 1978 Little Compton, 1990
  • Bristol, 1990 Portsmouth, 1979
  • Jamestown, 1995 Warwick, 1981
  • East Side, Providence, 1989 Cranston, 1980
  • Pawtucket, 1978 East Providence, 1976
  • Elmwood, Providence, 1979 Barrington, 1993
  • Narragansett, 1991 Glocester, 1980
  • North Kingstown, 1979 South Kingstown, 1984
  • Charlestown, 1981 Cumberland, 1990
  • Hopkinton, 1976

Stern, Robert A.M. ed. The Architecture of the American Summer; The Flowering of the Shingle Style. Rizzoli International, 1989

  • Filled with images and drawings of houses designed for the summer movement. There is a strong introduction by Vincent Scully, the sage of shingle style. Provides an good look at the architecture of this time.

Tanner, Earl C. Rhode Island: A Brief History. Providence, RI: RI State Board of Education, 1955

  • A short book that includes discussions on a myriad of topics about Rhode Island. There is also a short section on summer visitors and the leisure in Rhode Island.

Warburton, Eileen. In Living Memory; A Chronicle of Newport, Rhode Island, 1888-1988. Newport, RI: Newport Savings and Loan Company/Island Trust Company, 1988

  • A concise social history of Newport. Starts at the rise of the Gilded Age and continues to the present. Great photographs and good insight into the social lifestyle of Newport.

Wilson, Richard Guy, ed. Victorian Resorts and Hotels; Essays From A Victorian Society Autumn Symposium. Philadelphia, PA: Victorian Society in American, 1982

  • This book is a collection of essays about the history of recreation in the Victorian era. Provides solid background information on such subjects as: hotel design, health resorts of New England, wicker, resort casinos, and amusement parks. The amusement park section is especially well written. Overall this is a good book for those researching leisure, recreation, and the nineteenth century.

Wyatt, Donald. Rocky Point; A Rhode Island Treasure. Warwick, RI: Beacon Communications, 1996

  • Wyatt provides a great discussion of Rocky Point and its development. A chronology and discussion of its rise and fall are well worth reading. Provides great photographs of the park throughout its history.


Unpublished Material

Bell, Michael. A Living Museum. Unpublished, 1995

  • Bell, the state's folklorist, has written a short discussion on the folklore of carousels, specifically the Looff carousel in East Providence. Work was done for an exhibition of his photographs.

Marcavitch, Aaron. Unpublished Paper on Amusement Parks and Bristol, RI. Roger Williams University Preservation Research course. 1998

Smalarz, Laura. Unpublished Paper on Tourism and Bristol, RI. Roger Williams University, Historic Preservation Research course. 1998.

  • Both of these documents were produced as part of Adjunct Professor Myron Stachiw's course work. Smalarz's work provided much of the background on Newport's recreational development.

Woodward, W. McKenzie. Golf Courses. Unpublished.

  • This discussion is hopefully to be published, for it provides a good understanding of the golf courses in Rhode Island. Focuses on the history and specific architectural items of the golf courses.


National Register Nominations

Each of the National Register Nominations have produced formal recognition by the National Park Service as historic places. Each provide a history and background as well as discussion of specific architectural items within each historic place.

Roper, Stephen. National Register of Historic Places Nomination for Slater Park. Unpublished. 1976

Charleton, James. National Register of Historic Places Nomination for Flying Horse carousel. Unpublished, 1985

Charleton, James. National Register of Historic Places Nomination for Looff carousel. Unpublished, 1985

Charleton, James. National Register of Historic Places Nomination for Newport Casino. Unpublished, 1985


Other Reading on Society and Recreation

These books may provide a deeper understanding of society and recreation, but have not been reviewed for this study. They were recommended by other bibliographies in the proceeding books.

Braithwaite, David. Fairground Architecture; The World of Amusement Parks, Carnivals, and Fairs. New York: Frederick Praeger, 1968

Cheek, Neil H., Jr. & William R. Burch, Jr. The Social Organization of Leisure in Human Society. New York: Harper and Row, 1976

Dinger, Charlotte. Art of the carousel. Green Village, NJ: carousel Art, 1983

Lindley, Kenneth. Seaside Architecture. London: Hugh Evelyn, 1973


World Wide Web Documents

World Wide Web documents are to be taken at face value with some skepticism inherent. The NAPHA site seems to have solid evidence for its information, while the others, although researched and documented well are by unpublished authors. As always, "reader beware."

National Amusement Park Historical Association. "National Amusement Park Historical Association." 1997. <> (6 April, 1998)

Stanton, Jeffery. "Coney Island History Web Site." 1997. <> (9 April, 1998)

Rose, Julie K. "World's Colombian Exposition." 1996. <> (9 April, 1998)